1. Homer (9th Century b.c.?)



2. The Old Testament

3. Aeschylus (c. 525-456 b.c. )


4. Sophocles (c. 495-406 b.c. )


5. Herodotus (c. 484-425 b.c. )

History (of the Persian Wars)

6. Euripides (c. 485-406 b.c. )

Tragedies (esp. Medea, Hippolytits, The Bacchae)

7. Thucydides (c. 460-400 b.c. )

History of the Peloponnesian War

8. Hippocrates (c. 460-377? b.c. )

Medical writings

9. Aristophanes (c. 448-380 b.c. )

Comedies (esp. The Clouds, The Birds, The Frogs)

10. Plato (c. 427-347b.c.)


(esp. The Republic, Symposium, Phaedo, Meno,

Apology, Phaedrus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Sophist Theaetetus)

11. Aristotle (384-322 b.c. )


(esp. Organon, Physics, Metaphysics,

On the Soul, The Nichomachean Ethics, Politics Rhetoric, Poetics)

12. Epicurus (c. 341-270 b.c. )

Letter to Herodotus

Letter to Menoeceus

13. Euclid (fl.c. 300 b.c.)

Elements (of Geometry)

14. Archimedes (c. 287-212 b.c. )


(esp. On the Equilibrium of Planes,

On Floating Bodies, The Sand-Reckoner)

15. Apollonius of Perga (fl.c. 240 b.c. )

On Conic Sections

16. Cicero (106-13 b.c.)


(esp. Orations, On Friendship, On Old Age)

17. Lucretius (c. 95-55 b.c. )

On the Nature of Things

18. Virgil( 70-19 b.c.)


19. Horace( 65-8 b.c.)


(esp. Odes and Epodes, The Art of Poetry)

20. Livy (59 B.C.-A.D. 17)

History of Rome

21. Ovid (43 B.C.-A.D. 17)


(esp. Metamorphoses)

22. Plutarch (c. 45-120)

Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans


23. Tacitus (c. 55-117)





24. Nicomachus of Gerasa (ft.c. 100 a.d. )

Introduction to Arithmetic

25. '•Epictetus (c. 60-120)

* Dvicourses Encheiridion (Handhook)

26. Ptolemy (c. 100-178; ft. 127-151)


27. ""Lucian (c. 120-c. 190)


(esp. The Way to Write History,

The True History, The Säle of Creeds)

28. Marcus Aurelius (121-180)


29. Galen (c. 130-200)

"On the Natural Faculties

30. The New Testament

31. Plotinus (205-270)

'The Enneads

32. St. Augustine (354-430)


(esp. On the Teacher, "Confessions,

'The City of God, 'Christian Doctrine)

33. The Song of Roland (12th Century?)

34. The Nibelungenlied (13th Century)

(The Völsunga Saga is the Scandinavian Version of the same legend.)

35. The Saga of Bumt Njal

36. St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274)

'Summa Theologica

37. * 'Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)


(esp. The New Life, On Monarchy, 'TheDivineComedy) .38. Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400) Works

esp. 'Troilus and Cmeyde, 'Canterbury Tales)

39. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)


40. Niccolö Machiavelli (1469-1527)

'The Prince Discourses on the First Ten Book» of Lioy

41. Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469-1536)

The Fraise of Folly

42. Nicolaus Copernicus (147.3-1543)

'On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

43. Sir Thomas More (c. 1478-1535)


44. Martin Luther (1483-1546)

Three Treatises Table-Talk

45. Fran9ois Rabelais (c. 1495-1553)

'Gargantua and Pantagruel

46. John Calvin (1509-1564)

Institutes of the Christian Religion

47. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)


48. William Gilbert (1540-1603)

*On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies

49. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)

"Don Quixote

50. Edmund Spenser (c. 1552-1599)

Prothalamion The Faerie Queene

51. • "Francis Bacon (1561-1626)


'Advancement of Learning "Novum Organum "New Atlantis

52. William Shakespeare (1564-1616)


53. • »Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

The Starry Messenger "Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences

54. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

"Epitome of Copernican Astronomy 'Concerning the Harmonies of the World

55. William Harvey (1578-1657)

"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals "On the Circulation of the Blood "On the Generation of Animals

56. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

* The Leviathan

57. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

"Rules for the Direction of the Mind "Discourse on Method "Geometry

* Meditations on First Philosophy

58. John Milton (1608-1674)


(esp. "the minor poems, *Areopagitica,

"Paradise Lost, "Samson Agonistes)

59. "Moliere (1622-1673)


(esp. The Miser, The School for Wives,

The Misanthrope, The Doctor in Spite of Him-

self, Tartuffe)

60. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

"The Provincial Leiters


"Scientific treatises

61. Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)

* Treatise on Light

62. Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)


63. John Locke (1632-1704)

"Letter Concerning Toleration

*"Of Civil Government" (second treatise in

T wo Treatises on Government) "Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Thoughts Concerning Education

64. Jean Baptiste Racine (1639-1699)


(esp. Andromache, Phaedra)

65. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

" Mathematical Principles of Natural PMosophy "Optics

66. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716)

Discourse on Metaphysics

New Essays Concerning Human Understanding


67.Daniel Def oe (1660-1731)

Robinson Crusoe

68. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

A Tale of a Tub Journal to Stella 'Gullivers Travek A Modest Proposal

69. William Congreve (1670-1729)

The Way of the World

70. George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Principles of Human Knowledge

71. Alexander Pope (1688-1744)

Essai/ on Criticism Rape of the Lock Essay on Man

72. Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-


Persian Letters

72. Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, continued

Spirit of Laws

73. Voltaire (1694-1778)

Letters on the English


Philosophical Dictionary

74. Henry Fielding (1707-1754)

Joseph Andrews "TomJones

75. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

The Vanity of Human Wishes



The Lives of the Poets

(esp. the essays on Milton and Pope)

76. David Hume (1711-1776)

Treatise of Human Nature Essays Moral and Political "An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding

77. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

"On the Origin of Inequality "On Political Economy Emile "The Social Contract

78. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)

* Tristram Shandy A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy

79. Adam Smith (1723-1790)

The Theory of the Moral Sentiments "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations

80. • "Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

"Critique of Pure Reason

Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of


Critique of Practical Reason "The Science of Right 'Critique of Judgment

80. Immanuel Kant, continued

Perpetual Peace

81. Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Autobiography

82. James Boswell (1740-1795)


(esp. London Journal) "Life of Samuel Johnson Ll.D.

83. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)

"Elements of Chemistry

84. John Jay (1745-1829), James Madison (1751-1836),

and Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) 'Federalist Papers

(together with the "Articks of Confedera the "Constitution of the United States, and "Declaration of Independence)

85. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Introduction to the Principles of Morals and

Legislation Theory of Fictions

86. Johann Wolf gang von Goethe (1749-1832)

'Faust Poetry and Truth

87. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

'Analytical Theory of Heat

88. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831)

Phenomenology of Spirü 'Philosophy of Right 'Lectures on the Philosophy of History

89. William Wordsworth (1770-1850)


(esp. Lyrical Ballads, Lucy poems, sonnets;


90. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)


(esp. "Kubla Khan,"

Rime of the Ancient Mariner)

90. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, continued

Biographia Literaria

91. Jane Austen (1775-1817)

Pride and Prejtidice Emma

92. * "Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831)


93. Stendhal (1783-1842)

The Red and the Black The Charterhouse of Parma On Love

94. George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)

Don Juan

95. » 'Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Studies in Pessimism

96. • • Michael Faraday (1791-1867)

Chemical History of a Candle

* Experimental Researches in Electricity

97. ' "Charles Lyell (1797-1875)

Principles of Geology

98. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

The Positive Philosophy

99. ' ° Honore de Balzac (1799-1850)

Pere Goriot Eugönie Grandet

100. "Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)

Representative Men



101. • «Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)

The Scarlet Letter

102. ° e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)

Democracy in America

103. * 'John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

A System of Logic "On Liberty "Representative Government

* Utilitarianism

103. John Stuart Mill, continued

The Subjection of Women Autobiography

104. ""Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

0 The Origin of Species " The Descent of Man Autobiography

105. " e Charles Dickens (1812-1870)


(esp. Pickwick Papers, David Copperfield,

Hard Times)

106. * e Claude Bernard (1813-1878)

Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine

107. ° "Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

Civil Disobedience Waiden

108. Karl Marx (1818-1883)

"Capital (together with the 'Communist Manifesto)

109. George Eliot (1819-1880)

Adam Bede Middlemarch

110. ""Herman Melville (1819-1891)

Moby Dick Billy Budd

111. ""Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)

Crime and Punishment The Idiot "The Brothers Karamazov

112. " " Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)

Madame Bovary Three Stories

113. • * Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)


(esp. Hedda Gabler, A. Dolfs House,

The Wild Duck)

114. • "Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)

War and Peace Anna Karenina What Is Art? Twenty-three Tales

115. "Mark Twain (1835-1910)

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Mysterious Stranger

116. * • William James (1842-1910)

"The Principles of Psychology The Varieties of Religious Experience Pragmatism Essays in Radical Empiricism

117. "Henry James (1843-1916)

The American The Ambassadors

118. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900)

Thus Spoke Zarathustra Beyond Good and Evil The Genealogy of Marals The Will to Power

119. Jules Henri Poincare (1854-1912)

Science and Hypothesis Science and Method

120. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

0 The Interpretation of Dreams

* Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

"Civilization and Its Discontents

'New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

121. "George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)

Plays (and Prefaces)

(esp. Man and Superman, Major Barbara,

Caesar and Cleopatra, Pygmalion, Saint Joan)

122. ' • Max Planck (1858-1947)

Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory Where Is Science Going? Scientific Autobiography

123. Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

Time and Free Will

Matter and Memory

Creative Evolution

The Two Sources of Morality and Religion

124. • "John Dewey (1859-1952)

How We Think Democracy and Education Experience and Nature Logic, the Theory of Inquiry

125. " "Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

An Introduction to Mathematics Science and the Modem World The Aims of Education and Other Essays Adventures of Ideas

126. " " George Santayana (1863-1952)

The Life of Reason Skepticism and Animal Faith Persons and Places

127. Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924)

The State and Revolution

128. Marcel Proust (1871-1922)

Remembrance of Things Post

129. " ° Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

The Problems of Philosophy

The Analysis of Mind

An Inquiry tnto Meaning and Truth

Human Knowledge; Its Scope and Limits

130. ° "Thomas Mann (1875-1955)

The Magic Mountain Joseph and Eis Brothers

131. " " Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

The Meaning of Relativity

On the Method of Theoretical Physics

The Evolution of Physics (with L. Infeld)

132. " «James Joyce (1882-1941)

"The Dead" in Dubliners

Portrait of the Artist äs a Young Man Ulysses

133. Jacques Maritain (1882-

Art and Scholasticism

The Degrees of Knowledge

The Rights of Man and Natural Law

True Humanism

134. Franz Kafka (1883-1924)

The Trial The Castle

135. Arnold Toynbee (1889-

A Stitdy of History Civilization on Trial

136. Jean Paul Sartre (1905- )

Nausea .Vo Exit Being and \~othingness

137. Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsy-n (1918- )

The First Circle Cancer Ward